लिटिल चैम्पियन गढ़वाल - उत्तराखंड या उत्तरांचल
लिटिल चैम्पियन गढ़वाल - उत्तराखंड या उत्तरांचल ....
वसुंधरा रतूरी जी नेटवर्क पर होने वाले सा रे गा माँ की लिटिल चैम्पियन मी सबसे बड़ी दावेदार है.... Keep it up Vashundhara.... For more information please visit:
करण बीर सिंह रावत
पौडी गढ़वाल ग्रुप, उत्तरांचल, उत्तराखंड
ZEE NETWORK, GARHWALI, KUMAONI, PAURI GARHWAL, TEHRI GARHWAL, CHAMOLI GARHWAL, KUMAON, INDIA, NEW DELHI, CRICKET, LITTLE CHAMPION, SA RE GA MA
Tuesday, January 22, 2008
लिटिल चैम्पियन गढ़वाल - उत्तराखंड या उत्तरांचल
Friday, January 11, 2008
Article Topics: Geography, Ecology and Ecotourism
This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Mark McGinley (other articles)
Last Updated: January 10, 2008
Nanda Devi National Park (30° 41' to 30° 48'N and 79° 33' to 79° 46'E) is a World Heritage Site that lies in eastern Uttaranchal State, near the Tibetan border in the Garhwal (western) Himalaya, 300 kilometers (km) northeast of Delhi. The main entrance to the Park is via Lata and Tolma villages, some 25 km and 31 km respectively east of Joshimath township. It leads through the almost inaccessible gorge of Rishi Ganga to a basin surrounded by high mountain ridges and peaks except to the west, lying between 30°16' to 30° 32'N and 79° 44' to 80° 02'E. The Valley of Flowers is in the Paspawati valley 23 km north-northwest of Nanda Devi Park. It lies between 30° 41' to 30° 48'N and 79° 33' to 79° 46'E.
Date and History of Establishment
1862: The Paspawati valley was discovered by Colonel Edmund Smyth.
1931: The valley visited by the mountaineer F. Smythe who wrote a book publicising the “Valley of Flowers”
1936: The upper Nanda Devi basin was reached and described by mountaineers E.Shipton and N.Odell who climbed Nanda Devi
1939: The basin was established as the Nanda Devi Game Sanctuary by Government Order 1493/XIV- 28 of 7/01.
1962: Border disputes closed the area to traffic, altering the local economy.
1974-82: The Sanctuary was opened to mountaineering but the ensuing degradation led to its closure to all users.
1982: The Park was established as Sanjay Gandhi National Park by Notification 3912/ XIV 3-35-80, but was later renamed Nanda Devi National Park. Restrictions were imposed on the rights of nearby villagers.
The Valley of Flowers was declared a National Park by Government Order 4278/XIV-3-66-80 under the provisions of the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, for the conservation of its flora.
1986: The Nanda Devi National Biosphere Reserve was established (223,674 ha) with a 514,857 hectares (ha) buffer zone surrounding the two Parks.
2000: The Biosphere Reserve extended by the government to 586,069 ha which included both National Park core zones (62,462 ha + 8,750 ha, totaling 71,212 ha); the Valley was declared the second core zone of the expanded National Biosphere Reserve.
2004: The two core zones and buffer zone designated a United Nations Environmental, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve.
Nanda Devi: 62,462 ha. Valley of Flowers: 8,750 ha. The Parks share a 514,857 ha buffer zone within the Biosphere Reserve which is not within the World Heritage site.
Uttaranchal State in Chamoli District. Administered by the Uttaranchal State Forestry Department of the National Ministry of Environment and Forests.
Nanda Devi: 1,900 meters (m) (lower Rishi Gorge), 2,100 m (the basin) to 7,817 m (Nanda Devi West). Valley of Flowers: 3,350 m (valley floor) to 6,708 m (Gauri Parbat).
Nanda Devi Mountain. (Source: Stanford Alpine Club)
The Park is in the catchment basin of the Rishi Ganga, an eastern tributary of the Dhauli Ganga which flows into a major tributary of the Ganges, the Alaknanda River, at Joshimath. The area is a vast glacial basin, divided by a series of parallel north-south oriented ridges. These rise to the encircling mountain rim formed by sixteen peaks above 6,000 m. The best known of these are Dunagiri (7,056 m) and Kalanka (6,931 m) to the north, Nanda Devi East (7,434 m) on the eastern rim, Nanda Khat (6,811 m) in the southeast and Trisul (7,127 m) in the southwest. Nanda Devi West lies on a short ridge projecting from Nanda Devi East into the basin. It is India's second highest mountain. The upper Rishi Valley, known as the Inner Sanctuary, is fed by the Changbang, North Rishi and North Nanda Devi glaciers from the north and by the South Nanda Devi and South Rishi glaciers from the south. An impressive gorge cuts through the Devistan-Rishikot ridge below the confluence of the North and South Rishi rivers. The Trisuli and Ramani glaciers flow into the lower Rishi Valley or Outer Sanctuary, below which the Rishi Ganga enters the narrow, deep, steep-sided and virtually inaccessible lower gorge.
The basin displays an array of periglacial and glacial forms which cover a wide range of phases of growth. The combinations of normal and perched glaciers on different rock types add to the interest of the basin. Most of the Park falls within the central crystallines, a zone of young granites and metamorphic rocks. Along the northern edge the Tibetan-Tethys is exposed, consisting of sandstones, micaceous quartzite, limestones and shales. The Tethys sediments form Nanda Devi itself and with many of the surrounding peaks, displays spectacular folding and evidence of thrust movements, while other mountains like Changbang are granite. The crystalline rocks of the Vaikrita Group and lower part of the Tethys sediments have been tentatively subdivided into four, the Lata, Ramani, Kharapatal and Martoli formations. Further geological details are given by Lamba (1987).
The Valley of Flowers
The Valley of Flowers National Park. (Source: Case Western Reserve University)
The Valley is 20 km northwest of Nanda Devi National Park across the wide valley of the Bhiundhar Ganga. It is one of two hanging valleys lying at the head of the Bhiundhar valley, the other being the shorter Hemkund valley which runs parallel some 10 km south. It runs east-west approximately 15 km by an average of 6 km wide, in the basin of the Paspawati river, a small tributary flowing from the Tipra glacier which descends from Gauri Parbat in the east. Its central valley, lying at about 3,500 m, is a gently inclined basin of some 1,000 ha of alpine meadows, the Kundalinisen plateau, the forested slopes of which rise sharply through moraines to rocky ridges, perpetually snow-covered peaks and glaciers which together cover 73% of the valley. Alpine meadows cover 21% and forests 6% of the rest. The high surrounding mountains are not impassable and open to the south at Ghangrea (3,072 m), 7 km downstream. There, the Paspawati meets the Lakshman Ganga, becoming the Bhiundhar Ganga which flows 15 km to Govindghat at its confluence with the Alaknanda, a tributary of the Ganges. The main surrounding peaks are Nar Parbat (5,245 m) to the northwest, Nilgiri Parbat (6,479 m) to the north, Rataban (6,126 m) across the Bhuindhar Pass, with Gauri Parbat (6,708 m) to the east and Saptasring (5,038 m) to the south. The Lakshman Ganga flows from Lokpal lake (4,150 m) in the Hemkund valley, a much visited place of pilgrimage. The well exposed bedrock comprises crystallines of the Vaikrita group with sedimentary, mica schist and shale rocks. The soils are acidic and retain moisture well.
Being an inner Himalayan valley, the Nanda Devi Basin has a distinctive microclimate. Conditions are generally dry with low annual precipitation, but there is heavy rainfall during the monsoon from late June to early September. Prevailing mist and low cloud during the monsoon keeps the soil moist, hence the vegetation is lusher than is usual in the drier inner Himalayan valleys. From mid April to June temperatures are moderate to cool (19 degrees Celsius (°C) maximum). The Valley of Flowers also has the microclimate of an enclosed inner Himalayan valley, and is shielded from the full impact of the southwest summer monsoon by the Greater Himalaya range to its south. There is often dense fog and rain especially during the late summer monsoon. Both Basin and Valley are usually snow-bound for six to seven months between late October and late March, the snow accumulating deeper and at lower altitudes on the shadowed southern than on the northern side of the valleys.
Forests are restricted largely to the Rishi Gorge and are dominated by West Himalayan fir Abies pindrow and Rhododendron campanulatum with Himalayan birch Betula utilis up to about 3,350 m. Forming a broad belt between these and the alpine meadows is birch forest, with an understory of rhododendron. Conditions are drier within the inner basin becoming almost xeric up the main glaciers. Beyond Ramani, the vegetation changes from forest to dry alpine communities, with scrub juniper Juniperus pseudosabina becoming the dominant cover. With altitude, junipers give way to grasses, prone mosses and lichens, and on riverine soils to annual herbs and dwarf willow Salix spp. Woody vegetation extends along the sides of the main glaciers before changing gradually to squat alpines and lichens.
A floristic analysis of the area based on the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition is given by Balodi (1993). A total of 312 species, distributed over 199 genera and 81 families, has been recorded and preserved in the herbarium of the Northern Circle Botanical Survey of India. At least 17 of these are considered rare. Not in this list is Saussurea sudhanshui, newly described from the area. Within the larger area of the Biosphere Reserve some 793 species from 400 genera and 120 families were listed by the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition. Eight nationally threatened species recorded include Nardostachys grandiflora, Picroehiza kurrooa (VU), Cypripedium elegans, C. himalaicum, Dioscorea deltoidea (VU) and Allium stracheyi (VU). Local people use a total of 97 species, 17 for medicine, 55 as food plants, 15 as fodder, 16 for fuel, 5 for tools, 8 for house building, 2 as fibers, 6 for miscellaneous uses, and 11 for religious purposes.
The Valley of Flowers
The flower Saussurea obvallata is collected by local villagers to be used as a religious offering to Nanda Devi and other deities. (Source: Harvard University Herbaria)
The valley has an unusually rich flora of over 600 species with many rarities. It lies in a transitional area between the Great Himalaya and Zanskar Mountains, and also between the eastern and western Himalayan phytographic regions. The valley has three main vegetation zones: sub-alpine between 3,200 m and 3,500 m which is the limit for trees, lower alpine between 3,500 m and 3,700 m, and higher alpine above 3,700 m. The habitats include valley bottom, river bed, small forests, meadows, eroded, scrubby and stable slopes, moraine, plateau, bogs, stone desert and caves. The lower surrounding hills in the buffer zone are thickly forested. The Forest Research Institute in 1992 recorded 600 species of angiosperms and 30 pteridophytes in the valley and surroundings, discovering 58 new records for the valley of which 4 were new for Himalayan Uttar Pradesh. Of these plants, 5 out of 6 species globally threatened are not found in Nanda Devi National Park or elsewhere in Uttaranchal: Aconitum falconeri, A. balfouri, Himalayan maple Acer caesium, the blue Himalayan poppy Mecanopsis aculeate and Saussurea atkinsoni. 31 species are classified as nationally rare. The dominant family is the Asteraceae with 62 species. Forty-five medicinal plants are used by local villagers and several species, such as Saussurea obvallata (brahmakamal) are collected as religious offerings to Nanda Devi and other deities. The site is designated a Centre of Plant Diversity.Characteristic of the sub-alpine zone are high altitude forests which help to retain moisture and snow and support a large number of floral and faunal communities. It is dominated by the uncommon Himalayan maple Acer caesium (VU), west Himalayan fir Abies pindrow, Himalayan white birch Betula utilis, and Rhododendron campanulatum with Himalayan yew Taxus wallichiana, Syringa emodi and Sorbus lanata Some of the common herbs are Arisaema jacquemontii, Boschniakia himalaica, Corydalis cashmeriana, Polemonium caerulium, Polygonum polystachyum (a rampant tall weed), Impatiens sulcata, Geranium wallichianum, Helinia elliptica, Galium aparine, Morina longifolia, Inula grandiflora, Nomochoris oxypetala, Anemone rivularis, Pedicularis pectinata, P. bicornuta, Primula denticulate and Trillidium govanianum. In trampled areas where past livestock congregated, Himalayan knotweed Polygonum polystachium is a rampant weed.
The valley’s lower alpine zone has greater moisture and deeper soil. A large number of herbaceous communities grow in great profusion and it supports the greatest diversity of alpine plants. Characteristic of the zone are dwarf shrubs, cushion herbs, grasses and sedges. Common and single-seed junipers Juniperus communis and J. squamata, Rhododendron anthopogon, Salix spp., Lonicera myrtillus, Cotoneaster microphyllus, and Rubus ellipticus are the major shrub species in this zone. The herbaceous flora gives a spectacular multicolored array of flowers during the growing season. Their growth cycle is very short, and they give way to other communities later in the season. The dominant herbs of this zone are Potentilla atrosanguinea, Geranium wallichianum, Fritillaria roylei, Impatiens sulcata, Polygonum polystachyum, Angelica archangelica, Selinum vaginatum. The common grasses of the zone are Danthonia cachemyriana, Calamogrostis emodensis, Agrostis pilosula and Trisetum spicatum; the main sedge species are Kobresia roylei and Carex nubigena.
The higher alpine zone is an area of pioneer species dispersed among moraines, boulders, and rocky slopes, dominated by scattered and stunted herbs with delicate flowers, mosses and lichens. The stable slopes on southern aspects typically have meadows of Kobresia sedge. On northern aspects and in sheltered areas are extensive shrubby patches of Rhododendron lepidotum, Cassiope fastigiata and Juniperus communis. The zone’s dominant species are Kobresia royleana, Trachydium roylei and Danthonia cachemyriana. There are also several colorful herbs like Saussurea simpsoniana, Potentilla argyrophylla, Geum elatum, Senecio spp., Bistorta affinis, Bergenia stracheyi and the blue Himalayan poppy.
An account of the 14 known species of mammals is given by Tak & Lamba (1985) and Lamba (1987), 6 being nationally endangered. The basin is renowned for the abundance of its ungulate populations, notably bharal or blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, estimated to number 820 in 1977, 440 in 1981-1984 but 990 were sighted in 1993. Preliminary surveys suggest that Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster, mainland serow Capricornus sumatrensis (VU) and Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicu (VU) are also common, but are probably not as plentiful as they used to be due to hunting. However, numbers appear to have increased due to the closure of the Park to human activities since 1983. The goral Nemorhaedus goral does not seem to occur within the basin, although the species does occur near the Park. Snow leopard Uncia uncia (EN) is reported to have been "extraordinarily common" by Dang in 1961. This may reflect the relative ease with which the species is observed here and in the vicinity as it is very unlikely that the Park now supports a large snow leopard population because of its comparatively small size and the deep snow in winter. Other large carnivores are Himalayan black bear Selenarctos thibetanus (VU) and brown bear Ursus arctos, the existence of which has yet to be confirmed, and common leopard P. pardus. The only primate present is common langur Presbytis entellus although rhesus macaque Macaca mullata has been sighted outside the Park boundaries. Some 83 animal species were reported from the area of the national Biosphere Reserve by the Indian National MAB Committee.
Shankaran recorded a total of 114 species of birds in 30 families during the 1993 Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition. Some 67 of these species were not recorded during earlier surveys. Abundant species recorded during May to June include crested black tit Parus melanolophus, yellow-bellied fantail flycatcher Rhipidura hypoxantha, orange-flanked bush robin Erithacus cyanurus, bluefronted redstart Phoenicurus frontalis, Indian tree pipit Anthus hodgsoni, vinaceous breasted pipit A. roseatus, common rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus, and nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes. Species richness was found to be highest in the temperate forests, with a significant decline in richness as elevation increased. Other expeditions for which bird lists are available include Reed (1979) and Tak & Kumar (1987). Lamba (1987) lists 80 species for the area but the distribution of some of these is restricted to lower altitudes in adjacent areas. Some 546 species are reported from the Biosphere Reserve area by the Indian National MAB Committee.
There is a lack of systematic surveys on invertebrate fauna. Baindur recorded 28 species of butterfly from six families during May-June 1993, including common yellow swallowtail Papilo machaon, common blue apollo Parnassius hardwickei, dark clouded yellow Colias electo, Queen of Spain Issoria iathonia, and Indian tortoiseshell Aglais cashmirensis.
The Valley of Flowers
[[Image:redfox.jpgleft300pxthumbThe red fox Vulpes vulpes is one of only 9 species that has been directly sighted in the Valley of Flowers. (Source: Marietta College)
The density of wild animals in the Valley is not high but all the animals found are nationally rare or endangered. 13 species of mammals are recorded for the Park and its vicinity although only 9 species have been sighted directly: common langur Presbytes entellus, flying squirrel Petaurista petaurista, Himalayan black bear Selenarctos thibetanus (VU), red fox Vulpes vulpes, Himalayan weasel Mustela sibirica, and Himalayan yellow marten Martes flavigula, goral Naemorhedus goral, Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaste, Indian mouse deer Moschiola meminna, Himalayan thar Hemitragus jemlahicus (VU) and serow Capricornis sumatrensis (VU). The tahr is common, the serow, goral, musk deer and blue sheep are rare. The common leopard Panthera pardus is reported from lower parts of the valley closer to the villages. Local people have also reported evidence of Himalayan brown bear Ursus arctos and bharal or blue sheep Pseudois nayaur. A recent faunal survey in October 2004 has established the presence of snow leopard Uncia uncia (EN) in the national park.
The area is within the West Himalayan Endemic Bird Area but there have been no surveys specific to the Valley. 114 species were seen in 1993 in Nanda Devi Park. Species frequently seen in the valley include koklass pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha, the nationally listed monal pheasant Lophophorus impejanus, found in rhododendron thickets, scaly-bellied woodpecker Picus squamatus, greater yellow naped woodpecker P. flavinucha, great barbet Megalaima virens, blue throated barbet M. asiatica, snow pigeon Columba leuconota, spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis, lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis, yellow billed chough Pyrrhocorax graculus and red billed chough P. pyrrhocorax. The area is relatively poor in reptiles: most often seen are the high altitude lizard Agama tuberculata, Himalayan ground skink Leiolopisma himalayana and Himalayan pit viper Gloydius himalayanus. Along with the flowers are wild bees and many species of butterfly which need to be more researched. A few of the more evident species are lime butterfly Papilio demoleus demoleus, common yellow swallowtail Papilio machaon, common mormon Papilio polytes romulus, spangle Papilio protenor protenor and common blue apollo Parnassius hardwickei.
Nanda Devi, named after Devi (‘goddess’), consort of Shiva, is a manifestation of Parvati and has been revered since ancient times (Reinhard,1987). Hindus have deified the entire basin and every twelfth year devotees make the Nanda Devi Raj Jat pilgrimage to the foot of Trisul to worship their patroness the 'Bliss-giving Goddess' Nanda Devi (Kaur, 1982). The local people are the Bhotiya, an ethnic Tibetan group who lived by trading with Tibet via the Niti valley until the 1962 war with China, by transhumant herding up and down the valley, and on resources from the forests.
The Valley of Flowers
Seven kilometers south of the Park entrance, at Ghangrea, a track leads off to the Hemkund Sahib shrine sacred to Sikhs, and the Hindu temple to Lakshman, brother of Ram, beside Lake Lokpal. These have long been places of pilgrimage to both Sikhs and Hindus, and 400,000-500,000 pilgrims visit them every year. The valley itself was formerly used by migratory villagers for grazing two to three herds of 700-1,000 sheep and goats each and for 40-50 local cows and buffaloes. In 1862 the valley was chanced on by Colonel Edmund Smyth who praised the floral beauty of the region in various periodicals. This attracted Dr. T.G. Longstaff and A.L. Mumm to the Bhuyundar Valley in 1907. It was also found by the mountaineers F.Smythe and R.Holdsworth in 1931 while coming down from an expedition to Mt. Kamet. In 1937 Smythe revisited the valley and next year published The Valley of Flowers, bringing it to world attention. There is the tombstone of a botanist from Kew, Margrett Legge, who died here in 1939.
Local Human Population
The Park is uninhabited but the buffer zone is home to 19 communities, five in permanent and 14 transhumant settlements. The most prominent villages are Reni and Lata (114 families), on the north-western side, and in the Niti valley there are eight other villages, totalling 2,250 residents in 1997. 17 of these are inhabited by the Indo-Mongoloid Bhotiya tribe who comprise marchhas (traders) and tolchhyas (farmers) who practice rain-fed subsistence farming, make products from wool, draw resources from the forest and, before the area was closed off, grazed 4,000 goats and sheep in the alpine pastures of Dharansi and Dibrugheta. In1974, proposed Forestry Department clear-cutting of the local trees in Reni prompted the famous Chipko (hug the trees) movement among the villagers led by Gauri Devi, which spread across the region, halting government efforts to harvest the trees. The marchhas, no longer traders with Tibet, turned to a living as porters and guides. When the National Park was created in 1982 it was closed to all users, denying the villagers this trade as well as use of their native resources, which caused hardship and much resentment.
When the Biosphere Reserve was created in 1988, restrictions were extended to the buffer zone without prior consultation with the communities affected. Owing to their apprehensions about the Reserve there was a concerted protest from ten villages in the Niti valley in 1998 led by the villagers of Lata in the Jhapto Cheeno (swoop and grab) movement, against the Reserve management and the Forestry Department’s restrictions on mountaineering and grazing. In 2001 the Lata village council, set up the Nanda Devi Development Authority to convince the government to reconsider the ban on mountaineering so that the local community rather than outside interests might once again benefit from ecotourism. A trail has been created and the communities now receive a share in the fees from visitors while they support fire prevention and anti poaching activities, and provide guides and tourist accommodation. They also offer home stays, which are becoming increasingly popular amongst visitors.
The Valley of Flowers
The valley itself is uninhabited. The local people are mostly Bhotiya, non-tribal Rajput farmers and transhumant herdsmen, who winter their flocks at the area’s main permanent village of Pulna 12 km south of the Park and 1,750 m lower in elevation. Five and nine kilometers south of the Park entrance are the seasonal villages of Ghangrea (at 3,060bm) and Bhiundhar (at 2,240 m), occupied in summer to serve the pilgrims and tourists (when some 400 stalls line the pilgrim trail). The people of Bhiundhar who numbered about 330 in 1999, may no longer graze the valley and some families are still poor but others earn well from tourism and the pilgrimage and are very supportive of the Park. With support from the Forest Department, the local communities have formed Eco-Development Committees (EDCs). The EDCs at Bhyundhar and Govindghat provide support to the Park management and look after the waste disposal and management of visitor facilities along the trail outside the National Park. Over 70 tonnes of garbage was removed by these EDCs in the last two years alone.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities
The trek to Nanda Devi base camp is considered to be one of the toughest in the world. When the Park was open between 1974 and 1983 it became the second most popular Himalayan destination after Everest, attracting large numbers of mountaineers and trekkers from all over the world; in 1982 there were some 4,000 visitors, mostly expedition members and porters. The Park was then closed to both tourists and villagers because of the disturbance caused: 1,000 kilograms of tourist litter were later removed by the Indian team who made the 13th ascent of the mountain in 1993. The Park was only reopened in 2003 for regulated tourism following the new ecotourism policy of the state of Uttaranchal. The trail up to Dibrugheta in the National Park was opened to a maximum of 500 tourists per year in a program for ecotourism regulated by the Forest Department with active support from local communities. In the year 2003 over 2,200 tourists visited the Park and nearby eco-zone. In 2004 (to the end of November), 184 tourists visited the Park and 1,638 tourists visited the eco-zone. Camping sites have been developed in several places and the villagers offer home stays, which are becoming increasingly popular amongst visitors. Further facilities for pilgrimage, cycling, camping, mountaineering courses and cultural tourism are planned. Joshimath, where there are hotels, is about 170 km north of the railhead at Rishikesh, and 220 km from Jolly Grant airport at Dehra Dun.
The Valley of Flowers
The valley is very accessible and some of the many pilgrims to the nearby shrines travel on to see it. In 1999, between 30 and 50 people visited the Park daily. In 2003-2004, nearly 4,000 were recorded: 3,600 from India and 300 from abroad. Visits occur between May and early October, on foot once within the Park and guided by youths from the village to see that the flowers are not trampled. There is a Forest Department post and interpretation centre at Ghangrea near the entrance with brochures, books and posters and where entry fees are charged. For the last two years this has been managed by members of the EDC who present slide and film shows for visitors.
There are sign boards in the park and guided nature trails including a 19-kilometer trek. Regulations for trekking are being prepared. No camping is allowed in the valley. But mountaineering is allowed subject to permit and regulation, on two peaks, Rataban and Ghauri Parbat. There are also trails out of the park to the southwest and through bear-infested forest and over glacial ice to the northeast. There are some 25 visitor resthouses, lodges and hotels at Ghangrea near the Park entrance and down the Bhiundhar at Govindghat on the Alaknanda, including a very large Sikh gurudwara. There are Forest Department guesthouses at both Ghangrea and Govindghat, and camping near Bhiundhar village. The site is about 200 km north of the railhead at Rishikesh, and 250 km from Dehra Dun airport.
Scientific Research and Facilities
The first recorded attempt to enter the sacred basin was by W.Graham in 1883, but he was unable to get beyond the gorge of the lower Rishi Ganga. Subsequent attempts by Dr T. Longstaff in 1907 and H. Ruttledge in 1926, 1927 and 1932 also failed. Finally, in 1934, Eric Shipton and H. W. Tilman pioneered a route to the ‘Inner Sanctuary’ by forcing a passage up the upper gorge of the Rishi Ganga. Later, in 1936, H. Tilman and N. Odell made the first ascent of Nanda Devi, reputed the outstanding climb of the pre-War era. Their accounts of this natural sanctuary first drew attention to this spectacular mountain wilderness and led to its protection. A geological survey was conducted by Maruo in 1979. Among the first published observations on the wildlife of Nanda Devi are those of Dang (1961), Lavkumar (1977,1979) and for birds, Reed (1979). Surveys of the flora and mammalian fauna were carried out by the Botanical Survey of India and Zoological Survey of India respectively. The Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition conducted floral and faunal surveys and habitat assessments in 1993. Following the program of decadal monitoring of the region, a combined team of the Forest Department, Wildlife Institute of India, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Ecology & Development and Garhwal University conducted surveys in the region again in 2003. This research will contribute to the management of the Park.
The Valley of Flowers
The flora was surveyed and inventoried in 1987 by the Botanical Survey of India, in 1992 by the Forest Research Institute and in 1997 by the Wildlife Institute of India which found five species new to science. A research nursery and seed / rhizome / tuber bank for propagating rare plants and valuable medicinal herbs has been created at Musadhar near the entrance of the site. Rare and valuable medicinal plants are the subject of special programs. These include Aconitum heterophyllum, A. falconeri, Arnebia benthamii, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, Gymnadenia orchides, Megacarpaea polyandra, Picrorhiza kurrooa, Podophyllum haxandrum and Taxus wallichiana. Research plots have been set up to determine the best way to control the spread of the tall smothering Himalayan knotweed Polygonum polystachium without damaging other plants or the surface of the soil. A first annual survey was conducted in 2004 and will be repeated annually.
The area is one of the most spectacular wildernesses in the Himalayas. The basin is dominated by the pyramidal peak of Nanda Devi, India's second highest mountain, and drained by the Rishi Ganga which has cut one of the finest gorges in the world. It supports a diverse flora, largely because of the wide altitudinal range, and a number of rare or threatened animals. Unlike many other Himalayan valleys, it is free from human settlement and owing to its inaccessibility has remained largely unspoilt, particularly the forests of the lower Rishi Valley. The Chipko campaign made the site a symbol of participatory conservation and ecotourism in India.
The Valley of Flowers
The Valley is one of the two core zones of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve which protects one of the most spectacular mountain wildernesses of the western Himalayas, among which the Paspawati valley is celebrated for its flowers. More than 500 species grow there in an area of less than 2,500 hectares. It is also the habitat of the endangered snow leopard, the serow and rare Himalayan musk deer.
The upper Rishi Ganga valleys (the Outer and Inner Sanctuaries) were long preserved by the difficulty of penetrating the lower Rishi gorge which remained unexplored until 1934. Hunting, the collection of medicinal plants and other forms of exploitation followed until the 1962 war with China closed the border. From 1945 to 1974 the region remained closed to foreign visitors. Traditionally, the alpine pastures around Dharansi and Dibrugheta were grazed by livestock from Lata, Tolma and Peng villages, and latterly from villages as far up the Niti valley as Malari. A spate of mountaineering and trekking followed the re-opening of the Reserve in 1974 but caused such disturbance to the environment, that, on scientific advice, trekking, expeditions and grazing were banned by authority of the Chief Secretary of Uttar Pradesh. The 1983 ban covered grazing, hunting, harvesting herbs, wood-collection, mountaineering and trekking anywhere in the core area of the then projected Biosphere Reserve, including the whole National Park, Thus communities traditionally dependent on sheep rearing and local resources had to seek alternate pastures, change their vocations or emigrate. Over 25% left the valley.
A preliminary management plan was prepared but by 1988 this had not been sanctioned by the Chief Wildlife Warden. Included in the plan were recommendations concerning the ban on tourism and ways in which to provide employment for local people. Nandi Devi was earmarked as one of several protected areas for future inclusion under the Government of India's Project Snow Leopard. The Pindari and Sundadhunga valleys at the southern edge of the Nanda Devi massif were recommended for designation as a sanctuary to protect their reportedly large and viable ungulate and pheasant populations. In 1988, without local consultation, a long-projected national Biosphere Reserve was created to protect the region’s biodiversity, with Nanda Devi National Park as the core area. Following the provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, restrictions were imposed on grazing and other human activities throughout the Biosphere Reserve with adjacent buffer areas remaining open for legitimate community needs. The condition of the flora and fauna greatly improved but the villagers’ crops and cattle began to suffer increased losses to wild animals for which compensation was hard to obtain. As a result more than 75% of the residents developed a very negative attitude towards the Reserve management.
The 1998 Jhapto Cheeno protest against the restrictions on grazing and mountaineering and against official indifference enlisted world-wide interest. Faced with state support for potential development of the basin by national and multinational interests, the villagers created the Nanda Devi Development Authority in 2001. Following this initiative, the Protected Area management began to promote local enterpreneurship and actively involve local communities which had previously been ignored, in conservation activities. These now receive a share in the trail management fees and help to prevent fires and poaching. By 1993 the Nanda Devi Scientific and Ecological Expedition concluded that wildlife numbers were increasing and the ecosystem of the Park showed signs of recovery since its closure. This recovery and continued improvement in the biodiversity of the Park was re-confirmed in the decadal monitoring of the Park in 2003 carried out by the scientists of the Wildlife Institute of India, the Pant Institute of Himalayan Ecology & Development and Garhwal University. The demand to lift the restrictions on mountaineering is still raised occasionally, both by mountaineers for whom this region remains the final frontier and by villagers who see a potential for well paid employment as porters and guides.
With support from the MAB programme initiatives of the Indian government and the latest ecotourism policy of the newly created state of Uttaranchal, regulated tourism has been allowed. Community-based tourism plans for the villages around the Park (Lata, Tolma, Peng and Reni) have been prepared. Under these plans, capacity-building, the training and registration of local youths as guides, the creation of home stays for visitors, the establishment of local tour operator groups for eco- and cultural tours, the development of handicrafts and medical plant cultivation and the direct involvement of Women's Welfare Groups have all been introduced. As a result of these initiatives, over 2,200 tourists visited the Park and nearby eco-zone in 2003. Eco-Development Committees have been established in all the villages and PRA- (Participatory Rule Appraisal) based micro-plans have been prepared by them, supported with funds from various sources. This success was recognised in 2004 by an Ecotourism award, and by the presence of two local women at the Global Women’s Conference on Environment at Nairobi.
The Valley of Flowers
The Park is a natural laboratory for the conservation and study of the western Himalayan flora. When it became a National Park in 1982 livestock grazing ceased and restrictions were imposed on nearby villagers. However, the Park’s staff have begun to train them by building up their capacity as wardens and plantsmen, trekking and mountaineering guides. As wardens they are trained in implementing regulations and handling offenders, in the use of instruments and fire arms, in high altitude survival strategies and resolving conflicts with wild animals and intruding hunters; as plantsmen they are trained in plant identification, field biodiversity monitoring, identifying and restoring rare plants and rehabilitating their habitats. All are provided with better facilities and equipment. The nursery at the entrance of the site is researching ways to mitigate the pressure on rare and valuable plants and in cooperation with the Eco-Development Committee of Bhiundhar villagers have been encouraged to grow them on. The EDCs also clear the waste and manage visitor facilities along the trail outside the National Park. In 2002-2003 in cooperation with the villagers’ Eco-Development Committee and Forest Committee of Bhiundhar the Forestry Department oversaw the clearing of 50 tons of litter and removed 120 temporary stalls from the pilgrim trail from Govindhar to Hekmund. The Committee is also spreading awareness of the need to suppress the rampant Himalayan knotweed.
Management is done within the 2003-2013 plan for Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve which is implemented annually in consultation with local, district and state bodies but does not manage the Parks directly. A new ten-year management plan for the Valley of Flowers Park is due for completion in 2005 based on the following objectives:
The protection, in-situ and ex-situ conservation and monitoring of the flora and fauna;
Restoration of and research into the flora and fauna;
Management of the habitats of the park for endangered flora and fauna
Development, upkeep and litter-clearing of trek routes and basic facilities for park visitors with active support and participation of the local communities.
Education of local people about the biodiversity and protection of the park;
Generating opportunities in the local community for sustainable livelihoods and building their capacity for responsible ecotourism.
Key indicators for monitoring the state of conservation in the park are:
The status of rare and endangered flora such as the populations of Saussurea obvallata, Meconopsis aculeata, Cypripedium cordigerum, Dactlyorhiza hatagirea, Aconitum spp. in permanent plots;
The assessment of cover at past camps and trails by invaders like Himalayan knotweed Polygonum polystachyum, Rumex nepalensis, Impatiens sulcata and Osmunda claytoniana;
Signs of threats to the wild flora and fauna from illegal herb collection and poaching;
Regeneration of birch and fir in landslide areas below 3,300 m.
Hundreds of tons of litter, felling of trees and even cultural vandalism created by expeditions, along with the introduction of sheep and goats to the inner basin, reached serious proportions before the closure of the Park. However, by 1993, after ten years of closure, the wildlife had recovered and increased in numbers. Regular patrolling inside the Park during winters is very challenging. The two access routes into the inner basin are difficult to maintain because of the terrain and heavy snow fall, and manning the newly created checkpost at Lata Kharak throughout the year is also a challenge. Although their participation in ecotourism has been secured, their training for the work needs continued development. The number of staff has gone up but is still inadequate. A few of the wildlife staff have been trained at the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi, but they lack the necessary support for mountaineering equipment to patrol the higher reaches of the Park year-round.
The Valley of Flowers
The main management issues are, within the Valley, control of invasive knotweed and, on the way to the Park, tourist and pilgrim litter. This piles up by the tonne from the thousands of tourists that visit the shrines: 300,000 plastic bottles a year and 500-600 kilograms of human and mule dung per day. The local people have now combined to clear this. A past threat to the forests surrounding the pilgrim route was the destruction of trees for firewood but this is now forbidden. Within the Park some 1,000 ha of meadow are infested with the tall fast growing Himalayan knotweed which controls erosion but crowds out the subalpine flora. Its increase where livestock used to congregate is related to the prohibition of grazing. While livestock overgraze and over-enrich the soil, they may enhance floral diversity by limiting the growth of taller more vigorous plants. Its eradication and regular monitoring is expected to be a major expense. There is no pollution and little danger from avalanches except on the approach road from Govindghat. There is, nevertheless, a constant threat from local poachers, especially to the snow leopard, and to ungulates when they come down to the valleys in winter; also from local indifference to wildlife conservation. This is aggravated by lack of adequate funding for the training needed for high altitude monitoring.
Comparison with Similar Sites
The Valley is similar to Nanda Devi National Park, but has many more and more northerly plant species and is much more accessible. Entering the other Park requires time and mountaineering skills; it remains a wilderness rightly protected as a Strict Nature Reserve. At present there is only one World Heritage site in the mountains between Assam and northern Pakistan - the far larger mountainous Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal, but there are such large differences in scale and terrain as to make close comparison unrealistic. There may be comparable valley sites in the nearer Himalayas which remain largely unknown due to the difficulty of access and the strategic sensitivity of the region. There are 17 protected areas in the west Himalaya, covering 11.6% of the biotic province. There are certainly some alpine valleys such as Ralam, Pindari, Sunderdhunga, Khatling and Harkidoon, which may originally have been comparable in number of plant species but all have been degraded by overgrazing and medicinal plant collection. Three adjacent valleys of Khiron, Khakbusandi and Bedini-Ali have much less diversity. Nearby protected areas in Uttaranchal which include valleys are Gangotri and Govind National Parks, Kendarnath, Ascot and Govind Pashu Vihar Wildlife Sanctuaries and, in Himachal Pradesh, Sangla Wildlife Sanctuary. But none has a comparable floristic richness, and in so compact an area. The valley’s 600 species of plants comprise 25% of the vascular plants found in the Chamoli district though it is only 1.3% of its area. The valley is also celebrated in literature, both Indian and English, for its beauty, its flowers and the associated religious sites.
In 2004 a staff of 89 was deployed: one Director/Conservator of Forests, one Deputy Conservator of Forests, one Sub divisional Forest Officer, two Range Officers, two Deputy Range Officers, five Asst. Wildlife Wardens, six foresters, 22 Wildlife Guards, 17 Forest Guards and 21 part-time watchers. Out of these, 22 field staff have been deployed at the Park from the Biosphere Reserve establishment.
The Valley of Flowers
One Divisional Forest Officer, one Range Officer, 2 Foresters, 4 wildlife guards, 2 buffer forest guards.
Approximately Rs20 lakhs (Rs20,000,000/US$44,500) in 2003-2004. US$75,000 from the budget for Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve is given to the Park.
The Valley of Flowers
This comes from the national Ministry of Environment and Forests. An annual average expenditure of Rs17.5 lakhs (Rs1,750,000 / US$39,000) was recommended over a ten year period from 2000-2009. US$45,000 from the budget for Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve is allocated to the Park.
IUCN Management Category
Nanda Devi National Park: Ia (Strict Nature Reserve)Valley Of Flowers National Park: II (National Park)
2004: Both Parks designated as core zones of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man & Biosphere Programme (586,069 ha).
Natural World Heritage Serial Site
1988: Nanda Devi National Park inscribed on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria iii and iv. 2005: Extended to include the Valley of Flowers National Park.
Monday, January 07, 2008
1) Miracle Cure For Anything That Ails You Is As Close
Miracle Cure For Anything That Ails You Is As Close
As Your Supermarket Shelves - By Susan Jimison
Eat plenty of fish - fish oil helps prevent headaches. So does ginger, which reduces inflammation and pain.
Eat lots of yogurt before pollen season
Prevent buildup of fatty deposits on artery walls with regular doses of tea.
Use honey as a tranquilizer and sedative.
Eating onions helps ease constriction of bronchial tubes.
Salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines actually prevent arthritis.
Bananas will settle an upset stomach. Ginger will cure morning sickness and nausea.
High-acid cranberry juice controls harmful bacteria
Bone fractures and the manganese in pineapple can prevent osteoporosis.
Women can ward off the effects of PMS with Cornflakes, which help reduce depression, anxiety and fatigue.
Oysters help improve your mental functioning by supplying much-needed zinc.
Clear up that stuffy head with garlic.
A substance similar to that found in the cough syrups is found in hot red pepper.
Wheat, Bran, Cabbage
Wheat, bran and cabbage help maintain estrogen at healthy levels.
Orange & Green Veggies
A good antidote is beta-carotene, a form of Vitamin A found in dark green and orange vegetables.
Cabbage contains chemicals that help heal both gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Grate an apple with its skin, let it turn brown and eat it to cure this condition.
Monounsaturated fat in avocados lowers cholesterol.
High Blood Pressure
Olive Oil, Celery
Olive oil has been shown to lower blood pressure. Celery contains a chemical that lowers pressure, too.
Blood Sugar Imbalance
The chromium in broccoli and peanuts helps regulate insulin and blood sugar.
2) Health Tips – Super Fruits
Kiwi: Tiny but mighty
This is a good source of potassium, magnesium, Vitamin E & fibre. It’s Vitamin C content is twice that of an orange.
Apple: An apple a day keeps the doctor away?
Although an apple has a low Vitamin C content, it has antioxidants & flavonoids which enhances the activity of Vitamin C thereby helping to lower the risks of colon cancer, heart attach & stroke.
Strawberry: Protective Fruit
Strawberries have the highest total antioxidant power among major fruits & protect the body from cancer causing, blood vessels clogging free radicals.
Orange: Sweetest medicine
Taking 2 –4 oranges a day may help keep colds away, lower cholesterol, prevent & dissolve kidney stones as well as lessen the risk of colon cancer.
Watermelon: Coolest Thirst Quencher
Composed of 92% water, it is also packed with a giant dose of glutathione which helps boost our immune system. They are also a key source of lycopene – the cancer fighting oxidant. Other nutrients found in watermelon are Vitamin C & Potassium.
Guava & Papaya: Top awards for Vitamin C
They are the clear winners for their high Vitamin C content. Guava is also rich in fibre, which helps prevent constipation. Papaya is rich in carotene, this is good for your eyes.
Tips of how to stay young……..
Research has found that people who generally live longer do so partly because of good habits. Here, Dr Vernon Coleman and others provide some of the following good habits for longevity.
1) Laugh & fun, don’t be gloomy
2) Let bygones be bygones. Dwelling on the past inflicts unnecessary stress.
3) Early to bed, early to rise, is healthy & wise
4) Stay lean, being just 30% overweight is bad.
5) Keep learning, reading & socializing – an alert & active mind keeps brain cells healthy.
6) Keep working, doing something you like. Don’t retire, it slows down your body.
7) Be the boss of your own life. Letting others push you around produces stress.
8) Too many pills ruin your body, take just what you need.
9) Constantly alternating between weight gain & loss is bad
10) Exercise, quit smoking and eat less fatty foods
11) Do not worry about health & death, just get on with your life and enjoy it.
How it combats cancer: Research has revealed that a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective riety. The phytochemical sulforaphane raises the levels of certain cancer-fighting enzymes that defend the body from cigarette smoke, fumes, pesticides & other known carcinogens.
Diet tips: Broccoli leaves actually contain more beta-carotene (i.e. pre-Vitamin A) than the florets - use leaves in purees, soups, stir-fries. To preserve broccoli’s valuable nutrients, steam or microwave, being careful not to overcook. Avoid garnishing broccoli with fatty cheeses and creams instead, squeeze on some lemon juice or sprinkle with toasted breadcrumbs.
How it combats cancer: Its plentiful store of vitamin C works as an antioxidant and may also reduce absorption of cancer-causing nitrosamines from the soil or processed foods. Papaya contains folacin (also known as folic acid), which has been shown to minimize cervical ysplasia and certain cancers.
Diet tips: Choose papayas that are at least half-yellow in the store - fully green ones were probably picked too soon and won’t ripen properly. You can serve papaya in fruit salad, add it to a garlic-and-spinach pasta mixture, or just eat it on its own, letting the juice dribble down your arm.
How it combats cancer: Garlic’s immune-enhancing allium compounds block carcinogens from entering cells and slow tumor development. Diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil, has also been shown to render carcinogens in the liver inactive. Studies have linked garlic - as well as onions, leeks, and chives - to lower risk of stomach and colon cancer.
Diet tips: Add raw garlic to salads, use it fresh in marinades and sauces; rub freshly cut garlic around the insides of salad bowls and over chicken and fish fillets. Avoid dried or powdered garlic, which is less concentrated - and less effective
How it combats cancer: Research has shown that indoles, nitrogen compounds found in kale and other leafy greens, may help stop the conversion of certain lesions to cancerous cells in estrogen-sensitive tissues. In addition, isothiocyanates, phytochemicals found in kale, are thought to suppress tumor growth and block cancer-causing substances from reaching their targets.
Diet tips: A cruciferous vegetable, kale requires quick cooking - blanching or steaming - to preserve its nutrients. When you’re done, save the nutrient-rich cooking liquid for soups or sauces. You can also use whole large leaves to wrap fillings or to layer in lasagna.
How it combats cancer: This nutrient-dense food contains many anticancer properties. It’s loaded with beta-carotene, which may protect DNA in the cell nucleus from cancer-causing chemicals outside the nuclear membrane.
Diet tips: Go for freshness when picking potatoes - canned arieties contain less beta-carotene and vitamins C and B. Naturally sweet and creamy, mashed sweet potatoes can be enhanced with a little apple juice. Or whip the cooked tubers with orange zest or orange juice and season with cinnamon, nutmeg, and ginger.
How it combats cancer: Grapefruits, like oranges and other citrus fruits, contain monoterpenes, believed to help prevent cancer by sweeping carcinogens out of the body. Some studies show that grapefruit can inhibit the proliferation of breast-cancer cells in vitro. It also contains vitamin C, beta-carotene, and folic acid.
Diet tips: Grapefruit can be sweetened with brown sugar or a drizzle of maple syrup or honey; vanilla extract, fresh mint, and almonds also accent the fruit’s flavor. Grapefruit juice will give you the antioxidants and phytochemicals that fight cancer, but it’s missing the fiber that fresh, whole grapefruit offers.
How it combats cancer: Avocados are rich in glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that attacks free radicals in the body by blocking intestinal absorption of certain fats. Ounce for ounce, avocados also supply 60 percent more potassium than bananas and are a strong source of beta-carotene.
Diet tips: Store avocados at room temperature until they soften. If you don’t eat the fruit immediately after cutting, sprinkle on some lemon or lime juice to keep it from darkening. Add chunks or slices to salads and sandwiches or spread mashed avocado on bread.
How they combat cancer: Seaweed and other sea vegetables contain beta-carotene, protein, vitamin B12, fiber, and chlorophyll, as well as chlorophylones - important fatty acids that may help in the fight against breast cancer. Also, many sea vegetables have high concentrations of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and iodine.
Diet tips: Sea vegetables come fresh, dried, or powdered. Both the Japanese & the Irish regularly use them as flavorings for broths & soups, stir-fried over rice, or as a wrap for fish and other seafood. Varieties such as dulce, wakame, kombu, and hijiki even appear in pancakes, salads, puddings, and sandwiches.
How it combats cancer: Soy contains several types of phytoestrogens -weak, nonsteroidal estrogens that could help prevent both breast and prostate cancer by blocking and suppressing cancerous changes. Genistein, one type of phytoestrogen, also lowers breast-cancer risk by inhibiting the growth of epithelial cells & new blood vessels that tumors require to flourish.
Diet tips: Tofu is made by coagulating the protein in soybeans - much the way cheese is produced. While bland on its own, tofu absorbs other flavors when cooked, making it perfect for stir-fries, dips, spreads, shakes, even cheesecake. It’s also a good high-protein substitute for meat, whole milk & mayonnaise.
4) CAUSES OF CANCER
The number ONE killer in Singapore is cancer (followed by Heart Disease & Stroke). Not all cancers are the same. 1/3 is curable. 1/3 is preventable. 2 factors of cancer that cannot be controlled are AGE & FAMILY HISTORY.
Causes of cancer: -
1. Smoking is very often the main cause of cancer. It kills us silently and drains money from us quietly. There're 4,000 harmful chemicals (though in diluted form) in one stick of cigarette. Taking one puff is 600 times worst than inhaling the exhaust fumes from vehicles.
2. Some food that cause cancer are:
2.1 Barbecued Food
2.2 Deep Fried Food
2.3 Overheating Meat
2.4 Food that is high in fat causes our bile to secrete acid that contains a chemical, which is a promoter of cancer cells.
2.5 Food that contains preservatives, too much salt or nitrates (e.g. Canned food, Salted egg & veggies, sausages, etc.)
2.6 Overnight Rice (where Aflatoxin is accumulated)
2.7 Food that is low in fibre: Our body needs 25 gm of both soluble & insoluble fibre daily. We must drink at least 1.5 litres of plain water a day.
2.8 Contaminated Food (e.g. moulded bread causes our body to secrete toxins that may eventually lead to liver cancer in the long run. Never eat bread that is kept in room temperature for more than 2 days especially in a humid weather like Singapore's.
3. Types of fat and which is the best?
3.1 Highly Recommended for Health:-
i. Olive Oil - The best of all oils. It does not absorb in our body.
ii. Fish Oil - Omega 3 (contained in NI's Circulytes) haspoly-unsaturated fat. It's good for our brain cells.
iii. Peanut Oil - It contains Vitamin E. A small dosage is recommended only.
3.2 Not Recommended for Health
i Vegetable Fat - Palm oil is worst than coconut oil. It is high in cholesterol and highly unsaturated.
ii Coconut Oil - It has saturated fat.
4. Specific Food & Beverages
4.1 Egg when eaten too much can cause High Colon Cancer. Risk Ovary Cancer, Prostate Cancer.
4.2 Cabbage is highly recommended for health reason.
4.3 Tomato is best eaten raw with a bit of olive oil for better absorption. Other alternative is to take tomato sauce.
4.4 Coffee is good because it contains 2 anti-oxidants. Inhaling the coffee aroma for half each day is equivalent to eating two oranges a day. However, the residue of over-burned coffee is extremely bad for health. It can cause cancer.
4.5 Tea, as long as it is in its original tealeaves and not processed into BOH or Lipton packets, it is good for health. Tea contains 30 anti-oxidants. Recommended dosage is 4 cups a day.
Exercise and be fit
Have a balanced lifestyle. Exercise regularly.
F : Frequency: 3 to 5 times a week.
I : Intensity: Exercise till we sweat and breath deeply.
T : Types of exercises: Find one that suits our age, lifestyle, etc.
Have regular check-up
Once we reach the age of 45 & above, it is recommended that we go for regular comprehensive health examination. Early detection may save lives.
5) SALT THE CURE OF PAIN
I believe that most of your moms always tell you to drink a glass of salt water/rinse your mouth with salt water if you have a sore throat because salt can reduce inflammation.
This method has actually been proven (medically) to be really effective and it really can help to reduce inflammation.
They have also tested on other medical values of salt and found out that:
If you have pain in your joints/spine/body, you can simply try out this method which can help to relieve the pain (especially for old people who have rheumatism). Simply fry the salt let it settle down for a while before applying on affected areas. And if you have a problem of Hair Loss, you can simply prepare a pail of salt water and rinse your scalp/hair with it (it takes about 2 weeks to a month). It will not help in growing of new hair but can prevent. After tedious/strenuous exercise, soaking your feet with salt water can help to prevent cramps and pain., and also prevent from skin irritation. Hope it will be of help to you.
6) HONEY & CINNAMON
It is found that mixture of Honey and Cinnamon cures most of the diseases. Honey is produced in most of the countries of the world. Ayurvedic as well as Yunani medicine have been using honey as a vital medicine for centuries. Scientists of today also accept honey as a Ram Ban (very effective) medicine for all kinds of diseases. Honey can be used without any side effects for any kind of diseases. Today's science says that even though honey is sweet, if taken in the right dosage as a medicine, it does not harm diabetic patients also. A famous magazine named Weekly World News published in Canada dated 17 January, 95 has given a list of diseases that can be cured by Honey and Cinnamon as researched by western scientists.
The list is show below:
Take one part honey to two parts of luke warm water and add a small teaspoon of cinnamon powder, make a paste and massage it on the itching part of the body slowly. It is noticed that the pain recedes within a minute or two. Or arthritis patients may daily, morning and night take one cup of hot water with two spoons of honey and one small teaspoon of cinnamon powder. If drunk regularly even chronic arthritis can be cured. In a recent research done at the Copenhagen University, it was found that when the doctors treated their patients with a mixture of one tablespoon Honey and half teaspoon cinnamon powder before breakfast. They found that within a week out of the 200 people so treated practically 73 patients were totally relieved of pain and within a month. Mostly all the patients who could not walk or move around because of arthritis started walking without pain.
Those suffering from hair loss or baldness, may apply a paste of hot olive oil, one tablespoon of honey, one teaspoon of cinnamon powder before bath and keep it for approx. 15 min. and then wash the hair. It was found very effective if kept for 5 mins. also.
Take two tablespoons of cinnamon powder and one teaspoon of honey in a glass of luke warm water and drink it. It destroys the germs of the bladder.
Make a paste of one teaspoon of cinnamon powder and five teaspoons of honey and apply on the aching tooth. This may be done 3 times a day daily till such time that the tooth has stopped aching.
Two tablespoons of honey and three teaspoons of Cinnamon Powder mixed in 16 ounces of tea water, if given to a cholesterol patient, it reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood by 10% within 2 hours. As mentioned for arthritic patients, if taken 3 times a day any chronic cholesterol is cured. As per the information received in the said journal, pure honey taken with food daily relieves complains of cholesterol.
Those suffering from common or severe colds should take one tablespoon luke warm honey with 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon powder daily for 3 days. This process will cure most chronic cough, cold and clear the sinuses.
Yunani and Ayurvedic have been using honey for years in medicine to strengthen the semen of men. If impotent men regularly take two tablespoon of honey before sleeping, their problem will be solved. In China, Japan and Far-East countries, women who do not conceive and to strengthen the uterus have been taking cinnamon powder for centuries. Women who cannot conceive may take a pinch of cinnamon powder in half teaspoon of honey and apply it on the gums frequently throughout the day, so that it slowly mixes with the saliva and enters the body. A couple in Maryland, America had no children for 14 years and had left hope of having a child of their own. When told about this process husband and wife started taking honey and cinnamon as stated above, the wife conceived after a few months and had twins at full term.
Honey taken with cinnamon powder cures stomachache and also clears stomach ulcers from the root.
According to the studies done in India & Japan, it is revealed that if honey is taken with cinnamon powder the stomach is relieved of gas.
Make a paste of honey and cinnamon powder, apply on bread or chappati instead of jelly and jam and eat it regularly for breakfast. It reduces the cholesterol in the arteries and saves the patient from heart attack. Also those who have already had an attack, if they do this process daily, are kept miles away from the next attack. Regular use of the above process relieves loss of breath and strengthens the heartbeat. In America and Canada, various nursing homes have treated patients successfully and have found that due to the increasing age the arteries and veins, which lose their flexibility and get clogged, are revitalized.
Daily use of honey and cinnamon powder strengthens the immune system and protects the body from bacteria and viral attacks. Scientists have found that honey has various vitamins and iron in large amounts. Constant use of honey strengthens the white blood corpuscles to fight bacteria and viral diseases.
Cinnamon powder sprinkled on two tablespoons of honey taken before food, relieves acidity and digests the heaviest of meals.
A scientist in Spain has proved that honey contains a natural ingredient, which kills the influenza germs and saves the patient from flu.
Tea made with honey and cinnamon powder, when taken regularly arrests the ravages of old age. Take 4 spoons of honey, 1spoon of cinnamon powder and 3 cups of water and boil to make like tea. Drink 1/4 cup, 3 to 4 times a day. It keeps the skin fresh and soft and arrests old age. Life span also increases and even if a person is 100 years old, starts performing the chores of a 20-year-old.
Three tablespoons of honey and one teaspoon of cinnamon powder paste. Apply this paste on the pimples before sleeping and wash it next morning with warm water. If done daily for two weeks, it removes pimples from the root.
Applying honey and cinnamon powder in equal parts on the affected parts cures eczema, ringworm and all types of skin infections.
Daily in the morning, 1/2 hour before breakfast on an empty stomach and at night before sleeping, drink honey and cinnamon powder boiled in one-cup water. If taken regularly it reduces the weight of even the most obese person. Also drinking of this mixture regularly does not allow the fat to accumulate in the body even though the person may eat a high calorie diet.
Recent research in Japan and Australia has reveled that advanced cancer of the stomach and bones have been cured successfully. Patients suffering from these kinds of cancer should daily take one tablespoon of honey with one teaspoon of cinnamon powder for one month 3 times a day.
Recent studies have shown that the sugar content of honey is more helpful than detrimental to the body strength. Senior citizens who take honey and cinnamon power in equal parts are more alert and flexible. Dr. Milton who has done research says that half tablespoon honey taken in one glass of water and sprinkled with cinnamon powder, taken daily after brushing and in the afternoon at about 3.00 p.m. when the vitality of the body starts decreasing, increases the vitality of the body within a week.
People of South America, first thing in the morning gargle with one teaspoon of honey and cinnamon powder mixed in hot water. So their breath stays fresh throughout the day.
SINUS & HEADACHES:
Drink mix up with honey & lemon juice helps sinus headaches.
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Uttarakhand, Uttaranchal, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Chamoli Garhwal, Kumaon, Kumaoni, Garhwali
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"Gindi Mela" is a major fair held in the southern part of Garhwal in Uttarakhand. This fair is celebrated during the auspicious festival of Makara Sankranti. It is a major event, attracting people from far and near to the villages where this fair is celebrated.
The Gindi fair is synonymous with bravery, joy and competitive spirits. The word ‘gindi’ means ‘ball’ in the local language. As the name suggests, this fair is marked by a ball game. The game involves teams from two different villages. The main aim in this game is to capture the ball. The team that succeeds to get the ball over its side is declared the winner. The winning team takes home the ball, amidst celebrations and dances.
I belongs to Patty Maniyarsuin (East) and I have been part of these melas and enjoys a lot. This time also, I am planning to go to my native place for celebrating/watch this auspicious festival.
The forests in Uttarakhand have been valued at $2.4 billion or Rs ...By Pauri Garhwal Group(Pauri Garhwal Group) NEW DELHI, PAURI GARHWAL, GARHWALI, TEHRI GARHWAL, CHAMOLI GARHWAL, KUMAON, KUMAONI, NAINITAL, UTTARANCHAL, UTTARAKHAND. http://paurigarhwal.com/. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/paurigarhwal. http://pauri-garhwal-group.blogspot.com/THE PAURI GARHWAL GROUP, UTTARAKHAND - http://pauri-garhwal-group.blogspot.com/
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Famous ""Gindi"" Mela is celebrated every year in the month of January. Accessibility : Rail : Nearest railhead is Kotdwar, 72 kms ...www.paurigarhwal.com/festivals/festivals.htm - 41k - Cached - Similar pages
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